(Asakku) - A monstrous demon who id defeated by the god Ninurta/Ningirsu.
He was born frome the mating of An and Ki, and the Asag himself mated with the
kur (mountains) to produce offspring. An Asag/asakku is a demon who attacks and
kills human beings, especially by means of head fevers, and who is mentioned in
poetical enumerations of diseases.
- Origianlly the god of Kuara, a village near Eridu. He came to be associated
with Enki and with magical knowledge. He was regarded as the son of Enki and Damgalnuna,
and was later absorbed into the personality of Marduk. His name was used as an
alternative name for Marduk in magical incantations.
- The god of the Assyrian nation. His symbol is believed to be the winged
disc although the symbol is also thought to be that of the sun god Samas (Utu).This
gods seals were used to endorse documents of the utmost political importance,
this wold suggest his position as a god of the country, it"s people and certainly
it"s power and politics.
- A goddess worshipped almost exclusively at Lagas, where she was regarded
as the spouse fo the god Ningirsu, or else of Zababa. The daughter of An, she
had two sons by Ningirsu, the deities Ig-alima and Sul-sagana, as well as seven
daughters (minor goddesses of Lagas) for whom Ningirsu"s paternity was not
claimed. The correct form of her name could be Baba.
- Also known as Bisu, he was the Egyptian god of play and recreation. He is represented
as a bow-legged dwarf with an oversized head, goggle eyes, protruding tongue,
bushy tail and usually a large feathered crown as a headdress. He was a magically
protective deity who averted the power evil, and associated with the protection
of children and women in childbirth. Some Egyptologists consider him to be of
non-Egyptian origin since he is said to have come from the "holy land"
(the east, interpreted as Arabia or Babylonia) and called "Lord of Puoni"
(Punt, on the African coast of the Red Sea).
- (Hebrew Dagon) a West Semitic corn god who came to be worshipped extensively
throughout the Near East, including Mesopotamia. The common meaning of the word
"dagan" in Hebrew and Ugartic is "grain". According to one
tradition the god Dagan was the inventor of the plough. Dagan was regarded as
the father of the god Baal (Hadad) and second only in rank to the god El. He was
seen as a vegetation god. Sala was his wife in one tradition, in another it was
(Damkina) - Worshipped in Lagas and Umma in the early times and in her
city of Malgum as possibly one of a number of "mother goddesses". She
achieved an independent personality as the wife of Enki, they were the parents
of the god Marduk. Astrologically she is the constellation called the Wagon of
Heaven (Ursa Minor).
- A god of healing who drives away demons and "binds the torn sinew".
Usually regarded as the son of the goddess Ninisina and a son of, or else identical
with the god Ningiszida. Astrologically Damu was associated with the constellation
the Pig (possibly Delphinus)
- A Shepherd god in a disputation with Enkimdu the god of irrigation and
cultivation. Dumuzi represents the conflicting interests of the pastoralist. In
the rite of the sacred marriage of kings to Inana, the kings were identified with
Dumuzi, who was often her lover. When he died due to the actions of Inana, he
became a god of the underworld. Dumuzi and Ningiszida are represented as the gatekeepers
of the Heaven of Anu (An). In some Sumerian poetry Dumuzi is also referred to
-a local goddess of the village Kinuir near Lagas. Her name means "good child
of the abzu", and was sometimes abbreviated to Dumu-zi. She has no obvious
connection to the god Dumuzi.
(Ea)- The god of the subterranean freshwater ocean (abzu), and especially
associated with wisdom, magic, and incantations, and with the arts and crafts
of civilization. Sometimes called by the names of Nudimmud or Ninsiku, or by the
title "Stag of the abzu". Son of An/Anu, or else of the goddess Nammu
and his wife was Damgalnuna/Damkina, their offspring included the gods Marduk,
Asarluhi, Enbilulu, the sage Adapa and the goddess Nanse. His minister was the
"two-faced" god Isimud/Usmu. Enki was seen as a creator god and determiner
of destinies. He was always seen as favorable to mankind.
- The god known as "lord of dike and canal." Sometimes as the
"lord of dike, canal and furrow; cultivator". A son of Enki, he is closely
identified with the god Enbilulu the "canal inpsector".
(Ellil) -One of the most important gods in the Mesopotamian pantheon. The
other gods were said not to be able to even look upon his splendor. Sometimes
known as the offspring of An and brother of the goddess Aruru. He is also described
as a descendant of Enki and Ninki (Lord and Lady Earth), not connected with the
god Enki. His wife is Ninlil or (Sud). His children are the goddess Inana and
the gods Adad (Iskur), Nanna-Suen, Nergal, Ninurta/Ningirsu, Pabilsag, Nusku,
Utu (Samas), Uras, Zababa and Ennugi. Nusku is Enlil"s minister.
" A god connected with the underworld. Seven (or sometimes eight) minor deities
were regarded as his children. An ancestor of the god Enlil and a primeval deity.
- The god who has special care over dikes and canals, he is called the
"canal inspector of the great gods". Regarded as the son of Enlil, and
sometimes Enmesarra, his wife was Nanibgal.
- One of the gods created by the union of Enki and Ninhursaga.
- Her name can be translated into "Queen of the Great Below". She is
known in Akkadian as Allatu. She is the goddess who rules the underworld, mother
of the goddess Nungal and by Enlil, of the god Namtar who serves as her minister
and messenger. Sister of Inana and wife of the god Nergal. She lived in a palace
located at Ganzir the doorway to the underworld, protected by the seven gates,
all of which could be bolted and each of which was guarded by a porter.
- One of many underworld demons who are especially responsible for hauling
unfortunate humans off to the underworld. Often mentioned among the seven types
of evil demons, the galla are said themselves to number seven. Like most demons
or spirits the gallas could exist in a favorable form too.
" Goddess of the city-state of Lagas and like Bau with whom she was later
equated, she was regarded as a daughterof An. Sometimes called "Mother of
Lagas" or "Mother who founded Lagas". Gudea addresses Gatumdug
as both mother and father in one of the tales and asks for the protection of her
favorable udug and lama deities.
- Some are minor deities, others may be human. Most represent the Seven Sages
in human guise and as such, are not mortal.
- The goddess who was the faithful sister of Dumuzi and like him, a child of the
sheep goddess Duttur. Thought of as an "old woman", an interpreter of
dreams, as "Mother Gestinana". Equated sometimes with the goddess Belet-seri
"Lady of the open countryside".
(Girra) - Gibil or Girra (Akkadian girru) is deified fire. Viewed as god,
Girra was thought to be a son of Anu (An) and the goddess Sala. He represented
fire in all its aspects, both destructive and creative.
- The spirit of a dead person, living in the underworld, who must be propitiated
and revered. They are not in general happy and regular funerary offerings of food
and drink must be made to them. If not fed, they can become restless and haunt
the living. The gidim are also ghosts who return from the underworld to persecute
the living. They might enter the body through the ear. Some were deliberately
raised by necromancers to be questioned about the future and so forth.
- Obviously the creature had some religious significance, possibly magically
protective, but its precise associations are not known.
demon - They were explained as representations of the Seven Sages, and
groups of seven figurines of them were used as foundation deposits to protect
houses and palaces. Mentioned as "Guardians of the Gate".
- The goddess whose name means "great" was a healing goddess
who understands disease. A patroness of doctors. Worshipped also under the names
of Nintinuga, Ninkarrak, and Meme, originally the names of other goddesses; and
as Ninsina, "Lady of Isin." The wife of Ninurta or Pabilsag, or else
of the minor vegetation god Abu. Mother of the Healing God Damu and of the god
Ninazu also associated with healing.
(Humbaba) - Guardian of the Cedar Forest. A giant protected by seven layers
of terrifying radiance. Perhaps a formof the Elamite god Humban.
- The name from the Old Babylonian Period for the (ten) "great gods".
Generally used to refer to the gods of heaven collectively. In the Epic of creation
it is said that there are 300 Igigu of heaven.
- A god whose worship was briefly but importantly prominent during the Akkadian
Period. Known as a warrior god and the personal deity of the kings of that dynasty.
(Anzu) - A monstrous bird called Anzu in Akkadian. Its name can also mean
"fog" or "mist". It caused whirlwinds and sandstorms by flapping
its wings. It steals the tablet of destinies from Enki in the Sumerian version,
from Enlil in the Akkadian.
(Istar) - The goddess was the most important female deity of ancient Mesopotamia
at ALL periods. Her Sumerian name Inana is probably derived from a presumed Nin-ana,
"Lady of Heaven", it also occurs as Innin. The Syrian goddess Astarte
(biblical Ashtoreth) is later undoubtedly connected to her. The daughter of An
and closely connected to the city of Uruk. According to another tradition she
is the daughter of the moon god Nanna (sin) and sister of the sun god Utu (Samas).
She is also regarded as the daughter of Enlil or even of Enki in variant traditions.
Inana"s sister was Ereskigal, queen of the underworld. Her minister was the
goddess Ninsubur. She never has a permanent male spouse in any tradition. Even
Dumuzi who is often described as her lover has a very ambiguous relationship with
her and she is ultimately responsible for his death. One of her aspects is a goddess
of love and sexual behavior, especially extramarital sex. She is not a goddess
of marriage, nor is she a mother goddess. Her second aspect is that of a war goddess
who is fond of battle, which is proverbially described as the "playground
of Istar." Violent and lusting for power she stands by kings as they fight.
The third aspect is as the planet Venus, the morning and the evening star. "I
am Inana of the sunrise" she declares in Inana"s Descent to the Underworld.
In this form she is sometimes known as Ninsianna.
- A minor god who functions as a minister to Enki/Ea. Messenger for the
god. His name may mean "with two faces".
- A goddess who seems to have come from the Semitic tradition into Mesopotamia
from the Middle Euphrates region. Associated with Dagan, possibly as a wife. A
goddess of love, she is equated with Istar (Inana) and in other guises she is
associated with war and with extispicy (the liver lungs or colon spiral from a
freshly slaughtered animal are examined for divinatory purposes). She appears
to have been a mother goddess. Associated with the underworld.
(Adad) - The god who embodied the power of storms. The Akkadian equivalent
was Adad. The son of An in one tradition but in older traditions, he is seen as
the son of Enlil. His wife was the goddess Sala but she is also said to have been
the wife of Dagan.
- Local god of the town of Der, located on the border between Mesopotamia
and Elam, east of the Tigris. His wife wsa known simply as Sarrat-Deri, Queen
of Der and his minister was the snake god Nirah.. Most likely a god of justice
- A popular if not very important god known from the early Dynastic Period
onwards. May have bee connected with the Sumerian god Hendursag with whom he shared
a wife, the goddess Ninmug. Benevolent, protective night watchman, and a herald.
Associated with the underworld and the god Erra. Although his name may be connected
in some Semitic languages to the word meaning "fire" he was not a fire
- The Sumerian word for earth and was sometimes personified as a goddess
and female counterpart to An.
- The name of a protective beneficent deity originally associated with
Enki/Ea, later associated with Marduk. Figurines of this deity were used as foundation
deposits to ward off demons and sickness.
(Lamassu) - A beneficent protective female deity which was imagined in
" Now a demoness, she was once regarded a goddess. As daughter of
Anu (An) she was above the common run of evil demons. Unlike other demons who
followed the command of the gods when doing evil, she practiced evil for its own
sake. Her principal victims were unborn and newly born babies, both miscarriage
and cot death (crib death) were attributed to her. She tries to touch the woman"s
stomach seven times to kill the baby, or kidnaps the child from the wet nurse.
Women wore an amulet of Pazuzu about their necks to protect against her, evil
and Lulal - Either Lulal is a Sumerian god and La-tarak is an Akkadian
name for the same deity, or the two gods were at one time distinct but closely
related. They were later always paired and their figurines were buried at doorways
to protect the home. In a magical text they are listed as a protection against
- There were a male and two female lilitu and the "ardat-lili"
are a family of demons. They are not gods. They haunt the desert and open country
and are especially dangerous to pregnant women and infants. The lilitu seems to
be the female equivalent, while the ardat-lili (whose name means maiden lilu)
seems to have the character of a frustrated bride, incapable of normal sexual
activity. Thus they were very
- His figure was placed outside ablutions rooms, where he fended off the attacks
of the leonine demon "Mukil-res-lemutti" or "Evil attendant".
- A demon which in the Neo-Assrian and Neo-Babylonian Periods, can be identified
as the "ugallu, or big weather creature". A beneficent demon against
evil demons and illnesses. In some old seals he is a god known as "god with
scimitar" which is probably the underworld god Nergal. Assoicated as the
big weather creature of Iskur.
- A monster associated with Asakku (Asag) or the Anzu (Imdugud) . A recent suggestion
makes the creature sometimes the (umu) na iru - "the roaring (weather beast)"
the animal of the god Iskur.
- A figure associated with Samas/Utu who was used as a protective figure. His
Akkadian name seems to have been uridimmu which could be translated as "mad
lion" or literally "mad canine".
- The goddess who with her brother Asgi was worshipped in the Sumerian cities
of Adab and Kes. Her husband was Ninsikila whose name would later be misinterpreted
as a goddess"s name. Lisin was sometimes worshipped as a mother goddess and
called as Mother Lisin. She is the name of a star, Lisin is a Scorpionis.
- The great hero who was a defied king of the Sumerian city of Uruk. His
wife was the goddess Ninsun.
and Meslamta-ea - A minor god whose name probably means "mighty lord"
and was identified with Nergal in late tradition. His twin was Meslamta-ea and
they were worshipped together at Kisiga, a town in northern Babylonia. They were
thought to stand at the entrance of the underworld ready to dismember the dead
as they entered. Thought to be efficacious in guarding doorways. Astronimically
they are represented by Gemini (The Great Twins)
- Originally a Sumerian deity, one of several associated with dreams (mamud
being the word for dream). Mamu was sometimes regarded as female a daughter of
the god Utu and sometimes as male and referred to as the god of dreams.
- The patronal god of the city of Babylon. His name means "bull calf
of the sun". Later on he was known simply as "Bel" which means
"Lord". Son of Eniki/Ea, his wife was Sarpanitu and occasionally the
goddess Nanaya was treated as his wife. Nabu was his son. He was a god of magic
and wisdom, water and vegetation, judgment and has a connection with the Sun god
Samas/Utu. The method of his worship has been compared to monotheism but it never
led to a denial of the existence of other gods , or to the exclusion of female
(Amurru) - Akkadian god who destroys cities and rages over the land like
a storm, the son of An, who was sometimes said to be the son of Ninhursaga. His
wife was Belet-seri "Lady of the Desert" or else Asratu. He represents
a personification of the nomadic peoples of the desert who were called by that
name when they at first appeared in that region.
- (biblical Nebo) the Mesopotamian scribe god, divine scribe of the destinies
and a patron god of writing. He later joined Ea (Enki) and Marduk as a god of
wisdom. Sometimes seen as Marduk"s son. Sometimes identified with Ninurta
who was associated with irrigation and agriculture.
- Goddess who was considered in some traditions to have given birth to
An (heaven) and Ki (earth) and to many more of the ancient gods. Regarded as the
mother of Enki, she came to be thought of as one of the "mother goddesses.
- A minor deity who acted as a minister of Ereskigal queen of the underworld.
In one tradition he was the son of Enlil and Ninlil, while in another he was on
of the demons of the nether regions and a harbinger of death. In Sumerian "namtar"
meant destiny or death.
- A goddess who seems to have shared some of the sexual aspects of Inana.
She was worshipped along with her daughter Kanisura and Inana of Uruk in a sort
of trinity. Later her name was used in cultic texts to denote little more than
another aspect of Inana/Istar.
(Sin) - Sumerian Moon God sometimes called Suen and sometimes Nanna and
sometimes he was called by both names. Nanna was the son of Enlil and Ninlil,
his wife was the goddess Ningal, there children were Utu, the sun god, and the
- The goddess of the city-state of Lagas in south-east Sumer. Daughter
of Enki, sister of Ningirsu (the local form of Ninurta) and Nisaba in a parallel
tradition. She was associated with divination and the interpretation of dreams,
and with birds and fishes.
(Erra) - Originally the gods Nergal and Erra were separate but later became
so closely identified as to be combined. Nergal was sometimes known as Meslamta-ea
"he who comes forth from the Meslam." Later he would be also identified
with Lugal-irra. Associated with the underworld and usually regarded as the husband
of Ereskigal "queen of the underworld." Other goddesses sometimes considered
his wife were; Las and Mamitu. He was considered the son of Enlil and Ninlil,
or else of Belet-ili. Associated also with forest fires, fevers and plagues and
sometimes had a warrior like aspect.
- God who was the son of the queen of the underworld Ereskigal; he was also the
father of Ningiszda. His connection seems to be to the underworld. Worshipped
at Esnunna but later replaced by the god Tispak (the Hurrian storm god). There
was another Ninazu woshipped at Enegi, whose father was Enlil, he is considered
to be a different god.
- Goddess and wife of the god Nanna/Sin and mother of the sun god Utu/Samas.
- The god whose name means "Lord of Girsu", a god who was the
local form of the god Ninurta. Th emost prominent of the local pantheon of the
city-state of Lagas, where the town of Girsu lay (modern Tello). Son of Enlil,
husband of Bau and brother of the goddesses Nanse and Nisaba. He defeats the bird
Anzu when it steals the tablet of destines from Enlil. A warrior god who was also
associated with the fruitfulness of cultivation and vegetation, with the regulation
of canals essential for irrigation and with fecundity.
" Underworld deity, his name may etymologically mean "Lord of the Good
Tree". A guardian over demons who live in the underworld. A personal protective
deity of Ningirsu. He guards the gate to the heaven of Anu (An), the highest heaven.
- Sumerian name of the Mother Goddess who was known as the "mother
of the gods" and thought to have been responsible for many of the births
of the gods and goddesses. Many human rulers called her their mother also. Her
name means "Lady of the Mountain". Identical with the goddess Ninmah,
connected with the city of Kes she is sometimes known as the Belet-ili of Kes
or as she of Kes.
- Her name means "Lady of Isin", she was the patronal goddess of the
Sumerian city of that name. Daughter of the goddess Uras, her husband was Pabilsag
and her son Damu. Her epithet was "great doctor of the black-headed (human
beings)" , and like her son, associated with healing. Compared with Inana
and sometimes known as "great daughter of An" and other epithets proper
to Inana. She is identical with Gula.
(Mullissu) - Goddess and wife of the god Enlil. Likely that she was an
artificially created deity since the prefix of her name "nin" means
lady, but deified to provide a proper wife for her important god husband. Often
called "mother", "merciful mother" and so on, and may have
been a form of mother goddess. She interceded on behalf of mortals to her husband.
- Goddess midwife to Nammu when Nammu created mankind. Ninmah was also the name
of a constellation.
- A goddess whose name means "lady wildcow" her cult associated with
cattle. Wife of the deified hero Lugalbanda. They were the parents of Gilgames
and she would interpret his dreams.
(god) - A minor male deity who functioned as a minister to An. He was also
thought to be the god Papsukkal who functioned as a minister to the gods in general.
(goddess) - A minor female deity who functioned as a minister to Inana.
- A god whose worship reaches back to very ancient Sumer. A son of Enlil.
His wife was Gula, though sometimes he was associated with Ningirsu and his wife
was Bau. He was a war god and is the god"s champion against the Anzu bird
(Imdugud). He also had the role as a farmer god..
- A grain goddess. Daughter of An and Uras who became a goddess of writing, accounting
and scribal knowledge. She was also regarded as a daughter of Enlil and sister
of Ningirsu. The god Haya was her husband. Sometimes identified with the goddess
- A god especially associated with the town of Kazallu in northern Babylon.
Son of Nanna who may have been a storm god.
- Goddess and daughter of Ereskigal and a deity fo the underworld. Birtum
son of Enlil was her husband.
- Son of and minister of Enlil. God of fire and light and sometimes the
fire god Gibil is described as his son. Nusku is the god called upon to assist
in the burning of sorcerers and witches. Worshipped at Harran in north-west Syria.
- Son of Enlil and husband of Ninisina. God of the city of Larag. Astronomically
his is the constellation we know as Sagittarius.
- One of the monsters conquered by the warrior god Ninurta/Ningirsu. He was probably
a minor deity of the Lagas region.
- King of the wind demons and a demonic god. He is represented with a canine face
with abnormally bulging eyes, a scaly body, a snake headed penis, the talons of
a bird and wings. Often thought of as an evil underworld demon, but seems to have
played a beneficent role as protector against pestilential winds (especially the
west wind). He protected pregnant women from the evil Lamastu who would steal
their babies from their wombs. The women wore his amulet around their necks for
protection against her.
- The god who was chief of Tiamat"s military forces and her champion. Described
as Tiamat"s lover. After his execution by Marduk, mankind was made from the
slain god"s blood.
- A demon with a lion"s mouth, dragon"s teeth, eagle"s
claws and the tail of a scorpion. The name seems to be associated with a grain
disease probably spread via insect.
- Goddess of the city of Babylon and wife of Marduk. Worshipped by the
name Eura as a goddess of childbirth. Her name likely means "she of Sarpan,
which was probably a village but is as yet unlocated..
- A supernatural being with a horned cap of divinity, human head with beard, human
body, the hindquarters and talons of a bird, a snake headed penis, and a scorpion"s
tale. He may or may not have wings. Attendants of Samas (Utu) and by the Neo-Assyrian
Period, powerful protectors against demons. They were said to be both male and
female but no female representation in art has been found.
demons - The Seven is the name given to a group of demons, the offspring
of An and Ki, who act as assistants to the god Nergal (Erra). One collection of
magical incantations seems to identify the Seven with seven named evil udugs,
sometimes also called "Seven and seven" or "Seven times seven"
gods - "the Seven" is a name given to a beneficent group of gods
whose power can be harnessed against evil demons by means of magical incantations.
They may be identical with the seven children of Ishara and are sometimes named
as (Seven and seven) together with another group who may be the seven sons of
Enmesarra. They are symbolized by the seven dots and sometimes as the seven stars
or as we know them, the Pleiades (constellation).
sages - Seven wise men who lived before the time of the flood, named for
the seven cities from which they come. The seven sages are credited with building
the walls of Uruk.
Goddess, proprietress of the ale-house at the world"s edge.
god - The "smiting" position is the posture in which one would
weild certain weapons. Although this god has not been identified with any named
god, he may represent the god Lulal.
- Son of he sun god Samas (Utu) protector of the wild animals, sometimes
seen as a shepherd. Responsible for fertility in wild animals.
- She is likely to have been a goddess of the Hurrians originally and
entered the Mesopotamian world as the wife of Adad (Iskur) or as the wife of Dagan.
Girra is said to be the son of Sala.
- God of the Sumerian city of Umma. His epithet "Hero of An" suggests
that he was a warrior god.
(Aya) - A goddess of light, consort of Utu/Samas the sun god. Associated
with Sexual love and fruitfulness.
- A god whose name means "brilliant youth". Not a young god at all but
husband of the Mother Goddess Ninhursaga with whom he fathered three children,
Asgi, Lisin and Lil. Offerings were made to Sul-pa-e in the underworld in one
poem and he was later associated with demons. Sul-pa-e was one of many names of
the planet Jupiter.
- A creator goddess whose name is a form of the word tiamtum which means,
sea. She was split into by Qingu to form the world.
Seems to be identical with the god Tesup who was a storm god. Tispak was
a local god of the city of Esnunna in the Akkadian Period or early on in the Old
Babylonian Period. A warrior god his epithet being "Lord Of Armies".
(utukku) - A term for a particular type of demon they can be either benevolent
dabrutu Meaning "violent storms" this is the name of one, or
one of the species of the eleven monsters created by Tiamat.
(god) - God of the city of Dilbat, an ancestor of An. Identified with An
(goddess) - In some traditions the wife of An. Her name means "earth"
but according to other traditions An"s wife is Ki which means "earth"
in Sumerian. Mother of the goddesses Ninisina and Nisaba.
" Sumerian goddess of weaving, sometimes as a spider associated with
spinning her web because of the way her symbol appears.
(Samas) - Sumerian sun god, Akkadian name Samas. Son of Nanna the moon
god, brother of Inana. Sometimes made the brother of Anu (An) or of Enlil. His
wife was Serida (Aya). He is described as bearded and long-armed. As the sun sees
all, he came to be regarded also as the god of truth, justice and right, destroyer
of evil, and a warrior. Protector of kings.
- God of the city Kis, husband of Inana/Istar, he appears to have been a warrior
god. Described as the Marduk of battle.