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This is the single most progressive article I have found.  It tells of the foundation of the modern Third Wave and Toronto Blessing procession of events.  An article will follow shortly showing the bridge from these principalities and powers to the present Rhema, Strategic Spiritual piano coversfare, and Brownsville activities of the One World Insider, Peter Wagner.  I am grateful to Tim and Barb Aho for doing this good work.  I have brought it in tact into Balaam's Ass Speaks, as I have with a few other articles, to insure that it cannot be lost due to troubles the Ahos might experience online.





By:  Timothy and Barb Aho


"We learn from history that we do not learn from history," observed the German philosopher, Georg W.F. Hegel. The familiar axiom is at once lamentable and understandable. For the common man does not have at his disposal a store of reliable information upon which to base educated judgments, but a bewildering mass of half-truth, untruth and skewed data. Among the purveyors of misinformation are undiscerning historians, who scarcely take notice of those organizations which maintain a covert existence, and historical revisionists who misrepresent the secret societies to serve their agenda.

Exceptional recorders of human events who probe beyond the aura of mystery surrounding the arcane Traditions discover that a veritable "occult underground" exists and has existed throughout human history. The more perceptive find within the multiform kingdom of the cults that individual persuasions share a common agenda: to conform their society to a mutual set of philosophical ideals. Among these few will be found historian James Webb. With the pen of a ready writer, Webb has explored The Occult Underground of Western Civilization -- from the Renaissance through the rise of modern Spiritualism.


The Renaissance or rebirth describes the radical and comprehensive changes which occurred in European culture during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. The Protestant Reformation commenced in 1517, being firmly established in Europe fifty years later. Webb explains:


Renaissance scholars believed that Western Civilization had progressed beyond the barbarism of the Middle Ages, having found its inspiration and closest parallel in the ancient civilizations of Greece and Rome. Humanism replaced medieval duty to God and the King and Renaissance men, such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci and Marsilio Ficino of the Platonic Academy in Florence, revived the artistic styles and metaphysical values of classical antiquity, notably in Italy. However, freedom from religious conscription produced a form of culture shock. Under the veneer of the revival of arts and refinement of culture, interest in the occult, magic and astrology flourished as a substitute for religious faith.


Ficino incorporated Platonic literature and the Hermetic sciences - astrology, alchemy and magic - with Scripture, professing a Christian form of Neo-Platonism.


The Catholic Church, in its alliance with secular powers, had permitted in a limited way theories deriving from Plato and Neo-Platonism as a secular support for religious doctrine. However, the works of Aristotle had obtained entrance to Western Europe along with Neo-Platonism. Aristotle introduced the "scientific method," which was based upon observation rather than faith.


Roman Catholicism and other mystical religions such as Neo-Platonism, regardless of their differences, have more in common with Plato than with Aristotle. When the scientific approach obtained a foothold in Western Europe, it represented a serious threat to the existing order and undermined religious faith. By the end of the Renaissance, the two systems of philosophy which historically had competed for preeminence were reversed and Aristotle became the philosopher of choice.



The Renaissance had been a severe but not fatal assault on the established Church and its alliance with European monarchies. The scientific method, which would be a threat to "faith in Christ," was now granted an uneasy tolerance. Webb notes that, "For a time, this dangerous aspect of Aristotle was not appreciated by the Church -- not until it was too late."


The triumph of Aristotle over Plato during the Renaissance eventuated in a mass departure from established religion, which was superseded by reliance on human achievement. The popular opinion of the Age of Reason or Enlightenment was Deism, which held that the universe revolved around man and although God had created the world, man was left alone to manage things.


In this atmosphere of scientific rationalism, faith in the unseen realm diminished producing a decline in orthodox religion. Likewise, the pursuit of occult or hidden knowledge was adjudged by the Establishment to be of equally doubtful intellectual respectability.



The conversion from worship of a Supreme Being to Human Reason had produced no minor inblip and many failed to make the transition. The Romantic era was an artistic and intellectual movement of the late eighteenth century which also glorified Man, however with emphasis upon strong emotion, imagination, freedom from classical correctness in art forms, and rebellion against social convention. Discontent with the pursuit of materialism to the exclusion of transcendent ideals, the Romantic search for significance found fulfillment in occult mysticism and artists turned to the mysterious East with its Tradition of Oriental wisdom. The music and poetry of the Romantic masters became "conduits of essential truth" and "middle class drawing rooms…seedbeds for discussion of literary, political and musical topics among the intellectually progressive." (9)


The German metaphysician, Immanuel Kant, "challenged the salon culture to consign both the arid logic of ostensibly omnicompetent reason and tired reliance upon religious dogmas to the ash heap of bankrupt ideologies." (10) Kant further advocated the establishment of a world federation of republican states and Georg Hegel later developed the Kantian method of reasoning by "antinomies" as the basis for his dialectical method upon which the structure of Marxism was built. (11)


In the 1780's, young Frederich Schleiermacher readily absorbed Kant's philosophy. Although he had abandoned faith in the deity and vicarious atonement of Christ, Schleiermacher would enter ministry and become the "Father of Modern Theology." The evolution of his theology is described by Dr. Mark Devine in The Apologetic Betrayal of the Gospel as published in the Premise Journal:


As minister and metaphysician, Schleiermacher enthroned, instead of doctrine, "the power of Jesus self-consciousness" which was diffused through the believing community and taught that conversion is an aroBlipl of the universal God-consciousness. Since the unity of the original church was the influence of the Savior, in Schleiermacher's view, "the essence of the church is fellowship." (13) The extensive influence of Schleiermacher would uproot the German church from its doctrinal base, giving rise to new principles of higher criticism which rejected the authenticity of the Gospels, particularly the miracles, and also the cardinal doctrines of the Christian faith.



Nineteenth century England and Western Europe experienced several major revolutions simultaneously. The Industrial Revolution had reconstructed the European economy; the scientific method of inquiry had challenged accepted religious norms; international communications removed geographical barriers; and the French Revolution of 1789 had created a milieu of abiding discontent among disenfranchised lower classes. James Webb records that "…in the short but significant upheavals of 1848 over fifty violent attempts took place to topple established governments." (14) Socialist organizations proliferated which received their inspiration from the dialectical writings of Karl Marx (Capital) and Frederich Engels. In 1859, in the midst of these converging revolutions, Charles Darwin published the Origin of Species, which evolutionary thesis shattered the already frail faith of many in the established Church.

James Webb likens the crisis of consciousness which overtook the nineteenth century to the cultural adjustment of the Renaissance period and contends that it was, in fact, "a belated continuation of the intellectual upheavals of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries."


"Reason died sometime before 1865…" wrote the historian. "…after the Age of Reason came the Age of the Irrational." Bereft of assurances of immortality after so great an piano help on biblical revelation were masses of hopeless people "begging for a revelation which was scientifically demonstrable." Ensuing was a widespread flight from reason and a revival of the occult Traditions that had been discredited during the Enlightenment.

The foundation for a modern Spiritualist movement was already in place through the enterprises of three eccentrics. Emanuel Swedenborg, "a Swedish engineer turned prophet," who communicated with angels and spirits, had published the Arcana Coelestia in London in 1749; Franz Mesmer, "an Austrian physician branded unacceptable by the world of learning," popularized the idea of trance and the concept of Animal Magnetism (c. 1775); and Andrew Jackson Davis, "a young American good-for-nothing who took to seeing visions," became the first theorist of the Spiritualist movement through the publication in 1847 of his channeled work, The Principles of Nature, Her Divine Revelations." (16)


In 1848 it was announced, "The gods came down to earth again…" (17) Mysterious rappings of spirits were reported by the Fox family in their home in Hydesville, New York. Modern communications catapulted this isolated affair to international prominence and ignited a revival of occult interest and activity which would become the modern Spiritualist movement. People longed for a new religion and it was estimated that, by 1851, there were 100 mediums in New York City alone. Séances became the vogue in Europe where mediums were in demand to entertain guests with physical and mental phenomena at private parties. In England, clairvoyants would consult the dead for a guinea a sitting. James Webb draws the inference,


Alan Gauld, author of The Founders of Psychical Research, estimated that, in England, by the 1860's and 70's "…the existence of four fairly successful periodicals suggests that the number of active Spiritualists must have been well into five figures. The numbers of those influenced by Spiritualism, or at least interested in it, may have been perhaps ten times greater." (19)




The perplexity and inquisitiveness of the age had led to the formation of numerous Spiritualist societies. One of the early pioneers of Spiritualist inquiry was the Ghost Society at the University of Cambridge, England. The Founders of Psychical Research records the stated objective of the Cambridge Ghost Society:

The Ghost Society is also described in the biography of one of its founding members, The Life and Letters of Fenton John Anthony Hort, by Arthur Hort.


The Society for Psychical Research: An Outline of its History and the Life of Edpiano coversd White Benson by his son, Arthur, present further documentation of the distinguished founders of the Cambridge Ghost Society:


Canon J.B. Lightfoot, Bishop B.F. Westcott, and Professor of Divinity F.J.A. Hort also served on the Revision Committee for the English Revised Version of 1881. Drs. Westcott and Hort produced a New Greek Text and created a new theory of textual criticism for this revision of the Authorized Version of 1611. Edpiano coversd White Benson, who became Archbishop of Canterbury in 1883, married Mary Sidgwick. Edpiano coversd and Mary became the parents of Robert Hugh Benson, who converted to Roman Catholicism during the Oxford Movement led by John Henry Newman. (23) Mary's brother, Henry Sidgwick married Eleanor Balfour, the sister of Arthur Balfour, who became a future Prime Minister of England. Gauld reflects --


Arthur Balfour's brother, Gerald, was also the brother-in-law of Emily Lutyens, a disciple of Theosophist Annie Besant and foster-mother of Jiddu Krishnamurti, who was thought to be Lord Maitreya, the World Teacher of the new age.


As an undergraduate at Cambridge, B.F. Westcott also founded the Hermes Club, which he named after the Graeco-Egyptian deity, Hermes Trismegistus. Subsequent Hermetic societies founded by other Spiritualists would become famous in England -- one organized in 1884 by Anna Kingsford and Edpiano coversd Maitland, which was in close contact with the Theosophical Society, (26) and The Order of the Golden Dawn founded by MacGregor Mathers and Wynn Westcott. James Webb has elucidated the meaning of Hermes:


In her Theosophical Glossary, Madame H.P. Blavatsky also reported the extensive use of Hermetic doctrines in Gnostic writings:


A contemporary of B.F. Westcott, Mme. Blavatsky classified Westcott with the Gnostic philosophers, even laughing him to scorn in her channeled work, Isis Unveiled, for his credulity of The Pastor of Hermas. It seems that Anglican scholars gave the weight of Scripture to apocryphal literature from the occult underground with which she was familiar:


In the early nineteenth century, England had experienced a series of Christian revivals which were continuations of the Methodist revival and during which formed the Evangelical party of the Anglican Church. Evangelicals converted during this awakening recovered the doctrines of salvation which had long been obscured by the sacramentalism and other enormities of the Church of England. Secular historian Alan Gauld noted the profound influence of the Evangelicals upon English society:


Gauld highlighted the distinguishing feature of the Evangelical community: "It is indeed the pattern of family life which Evangelicalism disseminated so widely that seems in retrospect its most important legacy." Notwithstanding so rich a religious heritage, the spiritual casualties among Evangelical youth were legion.


As detrimental as Darwin's theory of natural selection, were other pernicious elements corrupting the younger generation of England and future clergy of the Anglican Church. The German scholar, Schleiermacher, was by this time molding the theology of Oxford and Cambridge in the Gnostic tradition. And the High Romantic poets of pantheism, William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge, were assiduously read and highly revered among the university intelligentsia. Coleridge, who ultimately died of an opium addiction,


Another corruptive catalyst was the empiricist philosophy of John Stuart Mill, whose works attained enormous prestige at Cambridge and throughout England. The dominant theme of Mill's Logic, (1843) was that the only legitimate source of information man has about the world is the physical senses; conversely, "faith" is not a valid foundation for belief.

The failure of many Anglican hierarchy to repudiate the higher critics and radical freethinkers scandalized the Evangelicals, whose outraged response was considered reactionary by the scholarly community. In 1861, Benjamin Jowett and six liberal Churchmen published a volume entitled Essays and Reviews, in which they expressed alarm lest, "…the majority of Churchmen, by holding fast the narrow, fundamental beliefs, should estrange themselves more and more from contemporary thought." (33) Jowett himself maintained, "Scripture must be interpreted like any other book and some of the essayists were even more radical in their tone." The portents of apostasy in the Church of England were ominous.


Many of the younger men of Trinity College at Cambridge were repelled by the Orthodox censure of the new speculations. In 1861 Henry Sidgwick, a Fellow and leading figure at Trinity, publicly defended the liberal manifesto of the clerical freethinkers: "As a learned divine (Mr. Westcott) expresses it, they love their early faith, but they love truth more." (35) Sidgwick finally resigned his Fellowship at Trinity College in 1869 on the grounds that he "could not continue in that assent to the doctrines of the Church of England which had been a condition of his appointment." It is noteworthy that in spite of this declaration, Sidgwick would be appointed to a position as professor of moral philosophy in 1892. Gauld records the rapid decline in spiritual aspirations among younger Cambridge men:


Henry Sidgwick, Frederic Myers and Edmund Gurney were from devout Evangelical families and were sons of clergymen, as were their mentors at Cambridge, Brook Foss Westcott, Fenton John Anthony Hort and Edpiano coversd White Benson. Sidgwick and Myers had matriculated at Trinity with the intent of entering the episcopate of the Church of England, Sidgwick having been influenced by his cousin E. W. Benson, who was a master at Cambridge before becoming a bishop and eventually the head of the Anglican Church. Alan Gauld explains Henry Sidgwick's mysterious change of mind:


Gauld hints that the ideological disposition of this elite society was topiano coversd the design of a future global harmonization: "(The) Apostles had hoped that developments in the social sciences would before long make possible an equitable and frictionless society." (38) He notes also the club's profound effect upon its members: "The spirit of the society gradually came to absorb and dominate Sidgwick completely and to influence the whole direction of his life." (39) Sidgwick's memoirs state, "…the tie of attachment to this society is much the strongest corporate bond which I have known in my life." F.J.A. Hort and B.F. Westcott were also members, Arthur Hort describing his father's ardor and influence:


Young Fenton Hort had initial reservations about joining the Apostles, but a letter from Dr. F. D. Maurice whose "teaching was the most powerful element in his religious development," persuaded him to join. In Hort's words, Maurice was "the well-known radical" who was expelled from his position at King's College in 1853 for heretical views on cardinal doctrines of the faith, having published a story on the "divine unconscious humanity." (41) Hort explained his change of heart to a Rev. John Ellerton:


A elite club for elder Apostles, the Eranus, was founded in 1872 by B.F. Westcott, J.B. Lightfoot and F.J.A. Hort. Arthur Hort records his father's membership in this select society:

Henry Sidgwick, also a member, provided Arthur a profile of the Eranus for his father's biography:

One eminent scholar who addressed the Eranus in 1897 was Lord Acton, a Roman Catholic who was appointed by Gladstone to the position of Professor of History at Cambridge. Lord Acton was distinguished for his vision of the ultimate "Universal History," a mystical belief in a universal conscience of the human race which enables mankind to gradually evolve morally, and to progress in civilization to overcome the world. (45) James Webb correlated Lord Acton's Universalism with the vision of religious unity undertaken by the Parliament of the World's Religions at its opening conference in 1893." (46)




The Anglican clergymen who founded societies for Spiritualist inquiry became dignitaries in the Church of England. However, the younger Cambridge intellectuals whom they had discipled in Spiritualist endeavors settled to work to establish a scientific basis for Spiritualistic investigation and proceeded to develop psychical research into a respected branch of knowledge.


In 1882, Henry Sidgwick, Frederic Myers, Edmund Gurney, Arthur and Gerald Balfour founded the Society for Psychical Research. Sidgwick who became the first president of the S.P.R. continued in this position for nine years. His prestigious connections and influence at Cambridge drew a number of distinguished persons into the Society, which James Webb speculates fulfilled the function of "Spiritualist church for intellectuals." Future Prime Minister Arthur Balfour, who was Sidgwick's ablest student at Cambridge, would serve as president of the S.P.R., as did his brother, Gerald Balfour, and sister, Eleanor Sidgwick. The record shows:


William Gladstone, Prime Minister from 1865-74, called psychical research, "The most important work, which is being done in the world. By far the most important work." William James, the famous psychologist, philosopher and father of author Henry James, became president of the American S.P.R. in 1885. However, in its industry and operation,


The Society for Psychical Research: An Outline of Its History, by W.H. Salter, blip in 1947-8, mentions this detail as to Nora Sidgwick, who became principal of Newnham College, Cambridge in 1892:


The original objective of the S.P.R. was to conduct research into "that large group of debatable phenomena designated by such terms as mesmeric, psychical and spiritualistic." Committees were organized to examine telepathy, hypnotism, mesmeric trance, clairvoyance, ESP, apparitions, haunted houses, and to determine the laws of physical spiritualistic phenomena. In recognition of the important work accomplished by Benson, Westcott and Hort -- the leaders of its precursor, the Cambridge Ghost Society -- the S.P.R. Historical Outline posits,

In its early stages, the S.P.R. held séances in the townhouse of Arthur Balfour of which his sister Eleanor was the principle organizer. Various mediums of reputation were investigated with the purpose of ruling out charlatans and determining if entities from the spirit realm or deceased persons did in fact communicate with the living. In 1884, Madame H.P. Blavatsky, founder of the Theosophical Society, was graciously interviewed by a committee of the S.P.R. Although Richard Hodgson later would report "the tangle of fraud, intrigue and credulity" associated with her work in India, the SPR was at first --


Later investigations yielded positive results in the area of mental phenomena from prominent mediums, such as Mrs. Thompson and Piper, who were able to conduct "cross correspondences" devised by the spirits of deceased S.P.R. members to communicate with their colleagues. (53) Edmund Gurney and Frank Podmore, as Secretaries of the S.P.R., investigated and classified information on numerous mediums and, with Frederic Myers, wrote Phantasms of the Living. Gauld notes that Myers and Podmore, who wrote the classic Modern Spiritualism, may have been practicing homosexuals. (54) Gurney died unexpectedly in 1888 from an overdose of chloroform and there was considerable speculation of suicide. Frank Podmore was found drowned in 1910. (55)

In 1896, Frederic Myers joined the Synthetic Society, founded by Arthur Balfour and modeled upon the famous Metaphysical Society. The Synthetic Society was devoted, not to mere discussion of religious and philosophical questions, but to "contribute topiano coversds a working philosophy of religious belief." Myers read two papers to this Society, which Gauld surmises "were based upon communications from the departed spirits with whom he was now convinced that he was in genuine contact." (56) Myers had developed and written in the SPR Proceedings a detailed theory of the subliminal self, upon which he based his worldview and which emerges in Gauld's summary of the five points presented in these papers:


In the early 20th century, Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung were SPR Corresponding Members and contributed to the S.P.R. Journal of Proceedings. (58) In a recent expose of Jung's occult proclivities, The Jung Cult, Richard Noll gives substantial credit to Myers and the S.P.R. for Jung's major theories.


The Founders of Psychical Research closes with the observation that psychical research emerged from the occult underground to a position of respectability within the establishment, largely due to the intellectual stature of the Society for Psychical Research.


In 1887, based on his investigation of deceased persons believed to inhabit the spirit realm, Frederic Myers forecast the future of psychical research:

The Society for Psychical Research is still active in London and is also accessible on the Internet. Current publications offered by the S.P.R. to interested seekers include:


"Hints On Sitting With Mediums; Tests For Extrasensory Perception and Psychokinesis; Trance Mediumship: An Introductory Study of Mrs. Piper and Mrs Leonard; Guide to the Investigation of Apparitions, Hauntings, Poltergeists and Kindred Phenomena; Psychical Research Past and Present; Survival: A Reconsideration, Do We Survive Bodily Death? Parapsychology and the UFO . . ." (62)



In 1881, Frank Podmore, who had joined the early Sidgwick group, met Edpiano coversd Pease at one of the Spiritualist séances that were the vogue in London, at which time they became close friends. The next year he invited Pease to attend a meeting of this group in which the S.P.R. was formed. Norman and Jeanne MacKenzie relate this epic event in their history of The Fabians:


Edpiano coversd Pease spent one year in the S.P.R. as secretary of its haunted-houses committee, but then turned to politics with the conviction that a social revolution was necessary. For a time he worked with an associate of Karl Marx, Henry Hyndman who founded the radical Social Democratic Federation. However, Pease was of the opinion that social revolution must begin with educating the intellectual and wealthy classes rather than fomenting agitation among the working class. He organized a Progressive Association which was joined by Podmore and other young fallen away Evangelicals.

The Association split into the Fellowship of the New Life, a commune with utopian illusions, and a research/debating group which Podmore named the Fabian Society, after the Roman general who defeated Hannibal. Fabius Cunctator's strategy which was to guide the Fabians was summarized in Podmore's words: "For the right moment you must wait…when the time comes you must strike hard." The Fabians soon attracted intellectuals from various other dissident organizations. Of these, Sidney Webb, Bernard Shaw and Annie Besant were members of the Dialectical Society influenced by the liberal millenarian aspirations of John Stuart Mill. As of 1886, the Fabian executive committee was comprised of Pease, Podmore, Besant, Shaw and Webb. However in 1889, Annie Besant was converted to the cult of Theosophy by Madame Blavatsky, whom she succeeded in 1891 as president of the Theosophical Society.

Upon this revolutionary base, Sidney Webb, his wife Beatrice and playwright George Bernard Shaw built an organization which educated the intellectuals, bohemians and disillusioned clergy of England in the art of "permeating" and using the machinery of government for their own socialist ends. The MacKenzie's observed, "There was, indeed, no clear dividing line between spiritual discontent and political radicalism in the netherworld of dissent." Bernard Shaw and Sidney Webb argued that "socialism could be proposed without forfeiture of moral credit by a bishop as well as a desperado." (64) The formation of the Christian Socialists and Christian Social Union created the vehicle by which socialist doctrine would permeate the Anglican Church.


Bishop B.F. Westcott gave an address to the Christian Social Union at Manchester in November, 1895. His subject was Christian Law, which he postulated changes to adapt to variable social conditions:


In 1894, the Fabian Society designated a large bequest to found the London School of Economics and Political Science. Philosopher Bertrand Russell served on the Administration Committee while Arthur Balfour contributed £2000 and also collaborated with Sidney Webb to introduce legislation in Parliament which would give the school university status. H.G. Wells, who had recently joined the Fabians, was "branching out into speculations about a new social order which naturally interested the Webbs." (67) An elite group of Twelve Wise Men, which included Russell and Wells, were selected as the "Co-Efficients" who met to discuss and formulate:


Established as a long-term investment to educate and train an elite workforce to carry out the schemes of socialist reform, the London School of Economics is now one of the largest schools of the University of London, having also an international reputation. Over half of its 5,000 students and academic staff are from outside of the United Kingdom. Five of its former staff members have won Nobel Prizes and its Journal of International Studies, Millennium, enjoys world-wide circulation and recognition. The L.S.E. also provides consultants to many organizations, including the U.K. government, international bodies such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund and the United Nations. (69) The Ford Foundation, which funds and whose members serve as trustees on the Council of Foreign Relations, (70) provided a grant in 1967 to the LSE for a Centre for International Studies. The European Institute of the LSE participates actively in the European Series conferences and hosted the 1996 conference which held discussions on European Union, i.e., EMU: How Would a Single European Currency be Managed? European Governance and Law, Europe in the World Economy. (71)





The progenitor of the Society for Psychical Research and the Fabian Society was the Cambridge University Ghost Society, founded in 1851. In 1853, two years after founding said Ghost Society, F.J.A. Hort and B. F. Westcott agreed, upon the suggestion of publisher Daniel Macmillan, to take part in "an interesting and comprehensive 'New Testament Scheme,'" that is, to undertake a joint revision of the Greek New Testament. (72) The project was withheld from public knowledge during the twenty years required by Westcott and Hort to complete the New Greek Text and during the subsequent ten years during which an English Revision Committee revised the 1611 Authorized Version. However, during this period of nearly thirty years, Drs. Westcott and Hort maintained their involvement in the Spiritualist pursuits of their various secret societies and political cabals: the Hermes Club, Ghost Society, Company of Apostles, and Eranus. The following entry appears in April, 1853 in The Life and Letters of Fenton John Anthony Hort:


The elimination of "Byzantine corruptions" would be the substitution of minority (1%) Alexandrian manuscripts for the Textus Receptus, the Received Text which had been recognized for nearly two millennia of church history and which agrees with the majority (99%) of manuscripts extant. (74) Karl Lachmann (1793-1851) was professor of Classical and German Philology in Berlin, and also a German rationalist and textual critic who produced modern editions of the New Testament in Germany in 1842 and 1850. David Cloud expounds:


Lachmann furnished the critical authority for Drs. Westcott and Hort in their formulation of a method of Textual Criticism, known as the Westcott and Hort Textual Theory. They hypothesized that that the original New Testament text had survived in near perfect condition in two manuscripts other than the Received Greek Text, which theory according to translators of the New King James Bible, "has since been discredited for lack of historical evidence." (76) In The Revision Revised, the brilliant textual scholar Dean John William Burgon refuted the claims of the Westcott-Hort Theory as:


Dr. Hort had, in fact, repudiated the authority of Scripture, writing to a Rev. Rowland Williams in 1858, "There are, I fear still more serious differences between us on the subject of authority and especially the authority of the Bible." (78) To B.F. Westcott he wrote in 1860, "But I am not able to go as far as you in asserting the infallibility of a canonical writing." (79) In response to this admission of a heretical position, Westcott wrote:


Constantin Tischendorf (1815-74) was a German textual editor whom Dr. Frederick Scrivener of the English Revision Committee ranked "the first Bible critic in Europe." Tischendorf traveled extensively in search of ancient documents and was responsible for finding the two manuscripts most relied upon in the Westcott-Hort Greek Text, the Codex Sinaiticus and Codex Vaticanus. Tischendorf discovered (c. A.D. 1844) the Vaticanus B manuscript in the Vatican Library and Sinaiticus Aleph in a waste basket in a Catholic Convent at the base of Mt. Sinai. (81) In The Revision Revised, Dean Burgon described for his English readers the corrupt character of the manuscripts primarily used by Westcott and Hort, not to revise the Textus Receptus, but to create an altogether new Greek Text.


The manuscripts in question were found to derive from an underground of occult scripture within Christendom that has been passed through successive generations since the apostolic era. As the occult Traditions have sought to infiltrate and transform the secular establishment, the Church has historically been attended by an Alexandrian Tradition, which seeks to smuggle Gnostic doctrines into the Sacred Canon via the "revision" or "correction" of Scripture. Bible scholar, Dr. Herman Hoskier parallels the folly of blip returning to Egypt to the Anglican scribes searching for inspired writings in the ancient house of bondage:



In 1857, liberal Anglican churchmen petitioned the Government to revise the 1611 Authorized Version, but were refused permission. A general distrust of revising the sacred text was prevalent and Archbishop Trench, later a member of the Revision Committee, called the issue, "A question affecting…profoundly the whole moral and spiritual life of the English people… (with) vast and solemn issues depending on it." Nevertheless, in 1871, the Convocation of the Southern Province was appealed to and consented to a revision.

The Revision Committee was divided from the beginning, the majority of two-thirds being those in favor of applying German methods of higher criticism to the revision process. The first chairman, Bishop Wilberforce, resigned calling the work a "miserable business," and protested the presence on the committee of a Unitarian scholar, Dr. G. Vance Smith. Dr. Smith, who denied the divinity of Christ, had nonetheless participated in a communion service at Westminster Abbey upon the invitation of Bishop Westcott prior to the first committee meeting. (84) Dean John Burgon has recorded that committee members were bound to a pledge of silence. (85) David Otis Fuller stated in Which Bible?, a collection of Bible scholarship, that the Westcott-Hort New Greek Text, which altered the Textus Receptus in 5,337 places,


The liberal majority was guided by F.J.A. Hort, B.F. Westcott and J.B. Lightfoot, of whom "Hort's was the strongest will of the whole Company, and his adroit-ness in debate was only equaled by his pertinacity." Arthur Hort confirms that on the committee, "Hort seems to have been the dominating influence…" In 1861, Dr. Hort implied the necessity of stealth to Dr. Westcott --


Subsequently pleased with the progress of the "New Testament Scheme," Dr. Hort wrote in 1870 to a friend:


In 1881, the English Revision Committee cast upon the world a New Greek Text and an English Bible which, in the words of one reviser contained "between eight and nine changes in every five verses, and in about every ten verses, three of these were made for critical purposes." A treatise on modern translations, Another Bible, Another Gospel by Robert Baker, includes twenty tables which compare hundreds of Scripture verses -- in the English Revised Version and in modern versions based on the New Greek Text -- which undermine fundamental doctrines of the Christian faith. (89) One table examines modifications in the modern versions which change the interpretation of key verses pertaining to Bible prophecy. Obscured in the ERV and modern Bible versions are the identity of the man of sin, the mark which he causes all to receive and the harlot religious system which sits upon seven mountains.




The secular historians of the nineteenth century progressive underground -- James Webb, Alan Gauld, the MacKenzies -- agree that the dominant figures in the occult/socialist movements were, with few exceptions, from Evangelical homes and whose the fathers were Anglican clergymen. The onslaught of skepticism, higher criticism and mysticism had assailed the citadel of Scripture but not the lofty ideal of social transformation which inspired Evangelical activism. The authors of The Fabians explained this anomaly --


Of the nineteenth century cast of noteworthy characters, it may be postulated that two figures stand preeminently at the fountainhead of the converging streams of twentieth century Spiritualism and globalism. During the thirty year period in which B.F. Westcott and F.J.A. Hort were employed in the creation of a New Testament Greek Text and revision of the English Bible, they also guided organizations dealing in matters occult and conspiratorial. Their progeny includes not only the plethora of contemporary versions based upon Egyptian recensions, but also the Society for Psychical Research, which first propounded the principles of both modern Spiritualism and Psychology, and the S.P.R. derivative, the socialist Fabian Society, which founded the globalist London School of Economics and Political Science. The contribution of Westcott and Hort to modern spiritualism and global integration is indeed vast and is increasing exponentially as the modern prophets of occult Traditions receive international power to give full expression to MYSTERY BABYLON, which rides the Beast of the apocalyptic vision.

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1. James Webb, The Occult Underground, Open Court Publishing Company, 1974, p. 114.

2. Ibid., p. 222.

3. Ibid., p. 196.

4. Ibid., p. 210.

5. Ibid., p. 349.

6. Ibid., p. 223.

7. Ibid., p. 7.

8. Ibid., p. 222.

9. "The Apologetic Betrayal of the Gospel, Premise, Volume III, No. 6., July 30, 1996, " Mark Devine,

10. Ibid., "Friendship in the Salons."

11. "Kant, Immanuel," Microsoft (R) Encarta. 1993 Microsoft Corporation. 1993 Funk & Wagnall's Corporation

12. Mark Devine, op. cit., "Putting Doctrine in its Place."

13. Ibid., "Friendship and Communion at Niesky and Barby."

14. James Webb., p. 7.

15. Ibid., pp. 7-8.

16. Ibid., pp. 21-26.

17. Ibid., p. 15.

18. Ibid., p. 43.

19. Alan Gauld, The Founders of Psychical Research, Schocken Books, New York: 1968, p. 77.

20. Ibid., pp. 66-7.

21. Arthur Hort, Life and Letters of Fenton John Anthony Hort, Vol. I, Macmillan & Co., 1896, pp. 171-72; pp. 211, 219-20. Available through The Bible For Today Press, #1-800-JOHN 10:9;

22. W.H. Salter, The Society For Psychical Research, An Outline of it's History, London, 1948, pp. 5, 6.

23. Ibid., p. 127.

24. Alan Gauld, p. 116.

25. James Webb, p. 105.

26. Ibid., p. 278.

27. Ibid., pp. 198-99.

28. H. P. Blavatsky, Theosophical Glossary, London, 1892, p. 140

29. H. P. Blavatsky, Isis Unveiled, Vol. II, Theosophical University Press, Pasadena, California, p. 243.

30 Alan Gauld, p. 35.

31. Ibid., p. 44.

32. David Otis Fuller, Which Bible?, Grand Rapids International Publications, 1975, pp.271-72.

33. Alan Gauld, p. 49.

34. Ibid., p. 50.

35. Ibid., p. 51.

36. Ibid., p. 64.

37. Ibid., p. 48.

38. Ibid., p. 317.

39. Ibid., p. 49.

40. Arthur Hort, Vol. I, p. 170-71.

41. Ibid., p. 242; also pp. 41-2,61, 64, 67, 76, 83, 92, 98, 105-6.

42. Ibid., p. 196; also p. 198.

43. Ibid., Vol. II, p. 184.

44. Ibid., pp. 184-85.

45. "Professor Lord Acton," Owen Chadwick, Acton Institute,

46. James Webb, p. 73.

47. Ibid., p. 36.

48. Gauld, p. 140.

49. Ibid., pp. 140-141.

50. W.H. Salter, p. 14.

51. Ibid., p. 8.

52. Ibid., pp. 21-2.

53. Ibid., p. 34; Gauld, pp. 274, 338.

54. Alan Gauld, pp. 90-1 ff., 143 ff.

55. Alan Gauld, p. 174; Webb p. 38.

56. Alan Gauld, p. 306.

57. Ibid., pp. 305-310.

58. W.H. Salter, p. 31;Gauld, p. 338-9.

59. Richard Noll, The Jung Cult, Princeton University Press, 1994, pp. 31-2.

60. Alan Gauld, p. 339.

61. Ibid., p. 322.

62. Society for Psychical Research, 49, Marloes Rd., Kensington, London W8 6LA,

63. Norman and Jeanne MacKenzie, The Fabians, Simon & Schuster, 1977, p. 18.

64. Ibid., p . 110.

65. Ibid., pp. 183-84.

66. Arthur Westcott, Life and Letters of Brook Foss Westcott, New York Macmillan and Co., 1896, Vol. I, p. 197. Available through The Bible For Today Press, #1-800-JOHN 10:9;

67. Ibid., p. 283.

68. Ibid., p. 290-91.

69. London School of Economics Experts,

70. Gary Kah, En Route to Global Occupation, Huntington House Publishers, Lafayette, LA, 1992, pp. 32, 61.

71. The British Council, European Series,

72. Arthur Hort, Vol. I, p. 240.

73. Ibid., p. 250.

74. D.A. Waite, Th.D., Ph.D., Defending the King James Bible, The Bible For Today Press, 1992, pp. 54, 57.

75. David Cloud, Way of Life Encyclopedia, 1219 North Harns Road, Oak Harbor, WA 98277.

76. New King James Version, Preface, "The New Testament Text," Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1982.

77. John William Burgon, B. D., The Revision Revised, Dean Burgon Society Press, 1883, pp. 241-42, 270.

78. Arthur Hort, Vol. I., p. 400.

79. Ibid., p. 422.

80. Arthur Westcott, op. cit., Vol. I, p. 207.

81. John William Burgon, p. 319.

82. Ibid., pp. 11, 12, 16.

83. David Otis Fuller, pp. 141-43.

84. Ibid., p. 291.

85. John William Burgon, p. 24.

86. Fuller, pp. 293-95.

87. Arthur Hort, Vol. I, p. 445.

88. Arthur Hort, Vol. II, pp. 138-39. 

89. Watch Unto Prayer,

90. Mackenzie, pp. 115-16.